Pattern of Thyroid Lesions in Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Analysis and Literature Review

Muhammad I. Saeed, Amal Ali Hassan, Muhammad Ejaz Butt, Khalid Ali Baniyaseen, Muhammad I. Siddiqui, Neda M. Bogari, Faisal A. Al-Allaf, Mohiuddin M. Taher

Abstract


Background: Ultrasonography (US) is being recognized as a traditional way of the diagnosis of various thyroid disorders, and this will help in detecting the thyroid tumors in early stage. Thyroid nodules are common and usually benign; steps to diagnose malignancy should include a careful clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, a thyroid US exam and a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.

Methods: A total of 173 registered cases were used for analysis in this study. Diagnosis was made following US-guided FNA cytology (FNAC) and histopathological diagnosis; clinicopathological and demographic data of all such patients were obtained and analyzed for the present study. For statistical analysis, Statistical Package of Social Sciences v.22 (SPSS) was used.

Results: In the current study, 87.3% of patients were female, and 12.7% were male. The mean age of the patients was 43.35 years, 86.4% were Saudi nationals and there was no significant difference between age groups. Overall, the distribution of lesions in all age groups was 41.6% in the right lobe, 9.3% lesions were adenomatous, 71.1% were colloid, and 10.4% were lymphocytic. The final diagnosis of thyroid lesions was confirmed after histopathological examinations. Out of 173 cases, 12.6% (20 cases) of male patients and 87.4% (139 cases) of female patients had benign lesions, respectively. Only one male case was malignant, and seven cases were malignant in female group. Eighty percent of males and 77.7% females have colloid nodules, and 15% of males and 9.3% of females have adenomatous nodules. Four cases were non-diagnostic, one case was atypia in females, and one case was suspicious of malignancy in a male.

Conclusions: Most thyroid lesions in this study population were benign, while papillary carcinoma was the most common malignancy encountered. There was a marked female predominance in all types of thyroid diseases. The most common age group affected is 30 - 39 years. In Saudi Arabia, growing prevalence of thyroid cancer may be due to the increased screening using sensitive imaging in clinical practice, and ultrasonography is the most accurate and cost-effective method for detecting thyroid lesions.




J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(2):106-116
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3202w


Keywords


Thyroid nodules; Goiter; Fine-needle aspiration; Ultrasound; Saudi Arabia

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