Prospective Identification of Oligoclonal/Abnormal Band of the Same Immunoglobulin Type as the Malignant Clone by Differential Location of M-Spike and Oligoclonal Band

Shikhar G. Vyas, Gurmukh Singh

Abstract


Background: Serum and urine protein electrophoreses and immunofixation electrophoreses are the gold standards in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathy. Identification of oligoclonal bands in post-treatment patients has emerged as an important issue and recording the location of the malignant monoclonal peak may facilitate prospective identification of a new “monoclonal” spike as being distinct from the malignant peak.

Methods: We recorded the locations of monoclonal spikes in descriptive terms, such as being in the cathodal region, mid-gamma region, anodal region, and beta region. The location of monoclonal or restricted heterogeneity bands in subsequent protein electrophoreses was compared to the location of the original malignant spike.

Results: In a patient with plasma cell myeloma, the original monoclonal IgG kappa band was located at the anodal end of gamma region. Post-treatment, an IgG kappa band was noted in mid-gamma region and the primary malignant clone was not detectable by serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE) in post-treatment sample. Even though the κ/λ ratio remained abnormal, we were able to recognize stringent complete response by noting the different location of the new IgG kappa band as a benign regenerative process.

Conclusions: Recording the location of the malignant monoclonal spike facilitates the identification of post-treatment oligoclonal bands, prospectively. Recognizing the regenerative, benign, bands in post-transplant patients facilitates the determination of stringent complete response despite an abnormal κ/λ ratio.




J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(10):826-830
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3109w

 


Keywords


Monoclonal gammopathies; M-peak location; Oligoclonal band; Stringent complete response; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Plasma cell myeloma

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