Nephrotoxin-Induced Renal Cell Injury Involving Biochemical Alterations and Its Prevention With Antioxidant

Andrew I. Fishman, Bobby Alexander, Majid Eshghi, Muhammad Choudhury, Sensuke Konno

Abstract


Background: Although nephrotoxic agents or nephrotoxins are known to induce acute renal cell injury, their cytotoxic action is not fully elucidated. It is thus crucial to explore such a cytotoxic mechanism and the increasing volume of reports indicated a significant involvement of oxidative stress. To test this possibility, we investigated if a nephrotoxin would exert oxidative stress, leading to renal cell injury accompanied by certain biochemical alterations. We also examined if specific antioxidant might help prevent such oxidative cell injury. These studies may then help establish a prophylactic or preventive modality for renal cell injury induced by nephrotoxins.

Methods: As glycerol has been commonly used for studying acute renal failure in animals, whether it would induce cellular injury was tested in renal proximal tubular OK cells in vitro. Cells were exposed to the varying concentrations of glycerol and cell number/viability was determined in 24 hours. Severity of oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay. Possible effects of glycerol on biochemical parameters were also examined on glyoxalase I activity and heat shock protein 90 using spectrophotometric (enzymatic) assay and Western blot analysis.

Results: Glycerol (2.5%) was highly cytotoxic to OK cells, inducing 95% cell death in 24 hours. Lipid peroxidation assay indicated that nearly 3-fold greater oxidative stress was exerted by this glycerol. Concurrently, glyoxalase I activity was drastically lost by 75% and heat shock protein 90 was partially degraded following glycerol exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine, a potent glutathione-based antioxidant, was capable of almost completely preventing the glycerol-mediated adverse outcomes, such as cell death, glyoxalase I inactivation, and heat shock protein 90 degradation.

Conclusions: Glycerol is cytotoxic, capable of inducing specific biochemical alterations such as inactivation of glyoxalase I and degradation of heat shock protein 90, which may reflect a breakdown of the cellular detoxification and defense systems, leading ultimately to OK cell death. Nevertheless, as N-acetylcysteine can provide full cytoprotection against such glycerol toxicity, it could be considered a prophylactic modality for nephrotoxin-induced oxidative renal cell injury and death.




doi:10.4021/jocmr833w


Keywords


Glycerol; Glyoxalase I; Heat shock protein; N-acetylcysteine; Renal cell injury

Full Text: HTML PDF

 

 

 

 

Browse  Journals  

     

Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.            
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jocmr.org   editorial contact: editor@jocmr.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.