RAM Cannula Versus Bi-Nasal Prongs as Respiratory Device Interfaces in Neonates of Thirty-Two or More Weeks of Gestation With Respiratory Distress: The First ProRAM Randomized Trial Report

Manar Al-lawama, Bayan Alaraj, Mahmoud Abu Zahra, Ibtehal AlHasanat, Heba Habash, AbdelKareem Alhyari, Leen Alshajrawi, Sallam Jaafreh


Background: Using bilateral short nasal prongs as an interface for noninvasive respiratory support is challenging, and it is associated with nasal injury. We aimed to compare RAM cannula with nasal prongs in delivering noninvasive ventilation to newborn infants.

Methods: This is a single-center randomized trial (trial registry: ISRCTN10561691). The setting involves a tertiary neonatal unit with a capacity of 30 beds and more than 13 years of experience in neonatal noninvasive ventilation. We included 50 infants born at ? 32 weeks of gestation, who had respiratory distress at birth. We excluded those with major congenital anomalies and those who required intubation in the delivery room. Primary outcomes were intubation rate and use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV); other outcomes included air leak and nasal injury rate. The infants were assigned using randomly generated numbers into bi-nasal prong and RAM canula groups in a 1:1 ratio.

Results: Two and four babies in the RAM and prong groups, respectively, were upgraded to NIPPV (P = 0.600). One versus no baby in the RAM vs. prong groups was intubated (P = 1.000). Newborns in the prong group required oxygen support for a longer period (mean duration: 154.6 255.2 h) than those in the RAM group (40.7 72.6 h, P = 0.030). None of the patients in the RAM group had traumatic nasal injury compared to five babies in the prong group (P = 0.050). Four babies in our study developed air leaks, with two in each group.

Conclusions: The use of RAM cannula in delivering noninvasive ventilation to newborns ? 32 weeks of age did not affect the noninvasive ventilation failure rate or incidence of air leak. The use was associated with a shorter duration of respiratory support and a reduced risk of nasal septal injury.

J Clin Med Res. 2024;16(1):24-30
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr5077


Neonates; RAM canula; Nasal prongs; Respiratory distress; Noninvasive ventilation

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