Association Between the Use of Thiazide Diuretics and the Risk of Skin Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Doosup Shin, Eun Sun Lee, Joonseok Kim, Lucy Guerra, Dayan Naik, Xavier Prida


Background: Thiazide diuretics are among the most widely prescribed antihypertensive agents. Given their photosensitizing effects, however, there are concerns that they may increase the risk of skin cancers. In this meta-analysis, we investigated an association between the use of thiazide diuretics and the risk of skin cancers.

Methods: We identified studies by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) from their inception to October 30, 2017. Nine relevant observational studies (seven case-control and two cohort studies) were included in this study. Since included studies were unlikely to be functionally equal, pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: The use of thiazide diuretics was associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23 - 2.80) and marginally increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02 - 1.38) and malignant melanoma (aOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.29). In the subgroup analysis, hydrochlorothiazide or hydrochlorothiazide combination medications were significantly associated with squamous cell carcinoma without significant heterogeneity among studies (aOR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.79 - 2.33; Higgins I2 value = 0.0 %; Q-statistics = 2.7, P value = 0.445).

Conclusions: Our results suggested that the use of thiazide diuretics may be associated with an increased risk of skin cancers. This association was most prominent between the use of hydrochlorothiazide or hydrochlorothiazide combination medications and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

J Clin Med Res. 2019;11(4):247-255


Thiazide; Diuretics; Skin cancer; Meta-analysis

Full Text: HTML PDF Suppl1 Suppl2 Suppl3

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.