Dietary Modification Trial in Community-Dwelling Japanese Elderly: A Pilot Study

Chika Momoki, Taeko Tsuji, Yukina Shikata, Hana Urade, Hideki Morimoto, Shinya Nakajima, Daiki Habu

Abstract


Background: This study examined the effects of 6-month nutrition education programs for community-dwelling elderly.

Methods: This study enrolled 50 community-dwelling elderly who regularly visit outpatient clinics. The programs had three goals: salt reduction, increase in dietary fiber, and adequate protein intake. Since it would be difficult for elderly to achieve all goals concurrently, a single goal was chosen by participants themselves. Anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, and assessment of dietary intake were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.

Results: The nutrition education program for salt reduction was well accepted by the participants and the amount of daily salt intake showed median value of 9.6 g at baseline, 8.0 g at 3 months and 8.1 g at 6 months (P = 0.005). The amount of dietary fiber intake only slightly increased after taking the nutrition program (median value of 13.4 g at baseline, 15.3 g at 3 months and 15.5 g at 6 months; P = 0.695), because of difficulties in introducing new food options to the diet. After taking the adequate protein intake program, participants showed small decreases in protein (a modification from 1.24 g/kg IBW to 1.20 g/kg IBW) and salt intake (8.2 to 7.3 g) at 3 months, but the effects were not sustained at 6 months.

Conclusion: This nutrition education program focusing on a single nutrient may serve as a strategy to successfully reduce salt intake and improve systolic blood pressure control in community-dwelling elderly individuals who regularly visit outpatient clinics. In our view, dietary and lifestyle habits should be taken into account as much as possible in nutrition education for elderly individuals.




J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(7):630-637
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3052w

 


Keywords


Dietary counseling; Nutrition education; Nutritional status; Elderly; Outpatient clinic

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