Estimating Right Atrial Pressure Using Ultrasounds: An Old Issue Revisited With New Methods

Renato De Vecchis, Cesare Baldi, Giuseppe Giandomenico, Marco Di Maio, Anna Giasi, Carmela Cioppa


Knowledge of the right atrial pressure (RAP) values is critical to ascertain the existence of a state of hemodynamic congestion, irrespective of the possible presence of signs and symptoms of clinical congestion and cardiac overload that can be lacking in some conditions of concealed or clinically misleading cardiac decompensation. In addition, a more reliable estimate of RAP would make it possible to determine more accurately also the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure with the only echocardiographic methods. The authors briefly illustrate some of the criteria that have been implemented to obtain a non-invasive RAP estimate, some of which have been approved by current guidelines and others are still awaiting official endorsement from the Scientific Societies of Cardiology. There is a representation of the sometimes opposing views of researchers who have studied the problem, and the prospects for development of new diagnostic criteria are outlined, in particular those derived from the matched use of two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic parameters.

J Clin Med Res. 2016;8(8):569-574


Right atrial pressure; Ultrasound monitoring; Inferior vena cava; 3D echocardiography

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