Parenting Practices in Pregnancy Smokers Compared to Non Smokers

Mini Tandon, Xuemei Si, Andy Belden, Ed Spitznagel, Lauren S. Wakschlag, Joan Luby


Background: The present investigation compared parenting practices in a sample of preschoolers whose mothers reported smoking during pregnancy versus those who did not.

Methods: A sample of n = 216, 3.0- to 5.11-year-old children, participants in an ongoing longitudinal study, was separated into those reportedly exposed to smoking in utero and those who were not. Parenting practices were compared between the two groups, using T-tests and exact logistic regressions. Multiple linear regressions and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between smoking status and parenting, controlling for variables also known to be associated with parenting practices.

Results: Current study findings suggest that smoking during pregnancy is associated with harsh parenting practices.

Conclusions: Study results highlight the possible role of parenting in disruptive outcomes well-known in toddlers exposed to nicotine in utero and have implications for targeting early interventions in these populations.



Prenatal; Smoking; Disruptive behavior; Parenting

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