Male Breast Cancer: Imaging Considerations for Diagnosis and Surveillance

Mathew Thomas, Hatem Al Kashroom, Shilpa Reddy, Daniel Zaccarini, Katherine Willer


Male breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. The important risk factors for the development of male breast cancer are family history, genetic mutations, obesity, liver disease, alcoholism, exogenous estrogen administration, and radiation exposure to the chest area. Despite its rarity, numerous studies have investigated the data on imaging considerations (mammogram, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), but have addressed only certain aspects of male breast cancer. A comprehensive approach on the imaging characteristics, timing of imaging, prognostication based on imaging characteristics, and follow-up strategies in male breast cancer are still lacking. The purpose of this review article was to provide a comprehensive overview of the imaging findings, optimal timing to obtain imaging, and the appropriate follow-up strategies in male breast cancer survivors. This article also describes how imaging modalities can aid in determining prognosis. By addressing this knowledge gap, the article provides valuable insights for clinicians managing this uncommon yet clinically significant disease.

J Clin Med Res. 2024;16(5):197-207


Male breast cancer; Mammogram; Sonogram; MRI in male breast cancer; Surveillance; Screening

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