Predictors of Premature Ventricular Contractions Development in Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Aida I. Tarzimanova, Anna E. Bragina, Ekaterina E. Sokolova, Tatiana S. Vargina, Anna E. Pokrovskaya, Tatiana A. Safronova, Irakli Zh. Loriya, Igor V. Cherkesov, Alexander G. Cherepanov, Liubov A. Ponomareva, Daria D. Vanina, Kseniya E. Krylova, Nadezhda K. Ziskina, Valery I. Podzolkov


Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients often develop atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and conduction disorders. The manifestation of ventricular cardiac arrhythmias accentuates the risk of sudden cardiac death.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the cohort of 1,614 patients admitted for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients were categorized into two groups based on the occurrence of PVCs. Group I comprised 172 patients diagnosed with PVCs of Lown-Wolf class II - IV upon hospital admission; group II (control group) consisted of 1,442 patients without this arrhythmia. Each patient underwent comprehensive clinical, laboratory, and instrumental evaluations.

Results: The emergence of PVCs in individuals afflicted with COVID-19 was associated with a 5.879-fold heightened risk of lethal outcome, a 2.904-fold elevated risk of acute myocardial infarction, and a 2.437-fold increased risk of pulmonary embolism. Upon application of diagnostic criteria to evaluate the cytokine storm, it was discovered that the occurrence of the cytokine storm was notably more frequent in the group with PVCs, manifesting in six patients (3.5%), compared to 16 patients (1.1%) in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean extent of lung tissue damage in group I was significantly greater than that of patients in group II (P < 0.05). Notably, the average oxygen saturation level, as measured by pulse oximetry upon hospital admission was 92.63.84% in group I and 94.20.50% in group II (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The presence of PVCs in COVID-19 patients was found to elevate the risk of cardiovascular complications. Significant independent predictors for the development of PVCs in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection include: age over 60 years (risk ratio (RR): 4.6; confidence interval (CI): 3.2 - 6.5), a history of myocardial infarction (RR: 3.5; CI: 2.6 - 4.6), congestive heart failure (CHF) with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (RR: 5.5; CI: 3.9 - 7.6), respiratory failure (RR: 2.3; CI: 1.7 - 3.1), and the presence of a cytokine storm (RR: 4.5; CI: 2.9 - 6.0).

J Clin Med Res. 2024;16(5):243-250


New SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection; Premature ventricular contractions; Cardiac arrhythmias; Predictors

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