Long-Term Outcome of a Series of Patients With Narcolepsy Type 1 and Comorbidity With Immunopathological and Autoimmune Diseases

Francisco J. Martinez-Orozco, Miguel Fernandez-Arquero, Jose L. Vicario, Laura Lillo-Triguero, Elena Ameyugo, Rosa Peraita-Adrados

Abstract


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of our series of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) patients with comorbid autoimmune diseases (ADs) and other immunopathological diseases (IDs), focusing on the incidence of new ADs and IDs in this sample.

Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted over 6 years (2014 - 2020) in a series of 158 Caucasians NT1 patients (96 males; mean age: 50.1 ± 19.0 years) from the previous study. All but one case (familial case) were HLA-DQB1*06:02-positive. The diagnosis of narcolepsy was made according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3).

Results: Twenty-one patients have been diagnosed with a new ID, 10 of them with an AD (autoimmune thyroid disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, transverse myelitis, granuloma annulare, primary biliary cirrhosis, alopecia areata and antiphospholipid syndrome), and 11 with other IDs (allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, contact dermatitis and drug allergy). One patient was diagnosed with two new ADs. We found IDs in 46 patients (24 females and 22 males) and the overall prevalence in this series is actually 29.11%; 22 of them (13.92%) had an AD, with a percentage higher than estimated in the general population.

Conclusions: The prevalence of AD/ID is high in our series, suggesting that NT1 might arise on a background of generalized susceptibility to immune-mediated processes. The occurrence of an ID can in turn influence the development of others in genetically predisposed individuals, which explains the increased associations observed in this long-term study.




J Clin Med Res. 2022;14(8):309-314
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4758

Keywords


Autoimmune diseases; Comorbidity; Epidemiology; Immunopathological diseases; Narcolepsy with cataplexy; Narcolepsy type 1

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