Effect of Treatment With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor on the Initiation of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Masataka Kusunoki, Fumiya Hisano, Naomi Wakazono, Kazuhiko Tsutsumi, Yoshiharu Oshida, Tetsuro Miyata


Background: Obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was initiated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed OSAS during treatment with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor therapy on the patients was investigated.

Methods: The study was conducted in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values of ? 6.5% who developed OSAS. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they were receiving treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor or with other oral hypoglycemic agents: the SGLT2 inhibitor group (n = 9) and non-SGLT2 inhibitor group (n = 7). The patients in the former group were under treatment with one of the following three SGLT2 inhibitors: luseogliflozin (2.5 mg/day), dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) and empagliflozin (10 mg/day). The patients took the drugs once daily, before or after breakfast. The patients were initiated on CPAP therapy for OSAS, and their weight, body mass index (BMI), serum HbA1c level, lipid profile, liver function parameters, serum uric acid, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) measured before the initiation of CPAP therapy (baseline) were compared with the values measured 3 months after the start of CPAP therapy.

Results: The AHI decreased significantly after 3 months of CPAP therapy, as compared to that at the baseline, in both the SGLT2 inhibitor and non-SGLT2 inhibitor groups. There was no significant change in the serum HbA1c value after 3 months of CPAP therapy as compared to that at the baseline in either group. The body weight and BMI increased significantly after 3 months of CPAP therapy in the SGLT2 inhibitor group, but not in the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group.

Conclusion: The body weight and BMI increased significantly after 3 months of CPAP therapy initiated for OSAS in the type 2 diabetic patients who were receiving SGLT2 inhibitor therapy. Thus, when CPAP therapy is adopted for an obese diabetic patient with OSAS, it should be borne in mind that the body weight may increase if the patient is receiving SGLT2 inhibitor treatment.

J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(10-11):497-501
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4626


Type 2 diabetes mellitus; SGLT2 inhibitor; OSAS; CPAP; Body weight; HbA1c

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