Effects of Influenza Vaccination on the Response to BNT162b2 Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Healthcare Workers

Marilena Greco, Federico Cucci, Pierfrancesco Portulano, Roberta Assunta Lazzari, Cosimo Caldararo, Fernando Sicuro, Carmelo Catanese, Giambattista Lobreglio

Abstract


Background: Vaccine-induced immunity is at present the main strategy to stop the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent evidences suggested a protective effect of influenza vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, while impact on the immune response to BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine is under investigation.

Methods: We aimed to evaluate this aspect in a cohort of 297 healthcare workers (108 males, 189 females) after seasonal influenza vaccination compared to no-flu-vaccination. VAX+ (165 individuals; 63 males and 102 females) had tetravalent influenza vaccine, and VAX- (132 individuals; 45 males and 87 females) had no flu vaccination. Anti-spike-receptor binding domain (RBD) level was tested 15 - 70 days after BNT162b2 second inoculum.

Results: Increased antibody response was observed in total VAX+ compared to VAX- (2,047.4 vs. 1,494.2 binding antibody unit (BAU)/mL, P = 0.0039), independently from gender and body mass index (BMI). Younger total individuals (< 35 years) showed significant increase of the level of binding antibodies (2,184.8 vs. 1,590.9 BAU/mL, P = 0.0038) compared to ? 35 years; young/old difference was lost restricting to VAX+ subgroup. Flu vaccinations appear associated to better antibody response in older individuals (P = 0.027, ? 35 years VAX+ vs. VAX-). A decreasing trend during time was observed for both VAX+ and VAX-, except for < 35 years VAX- individuals. Early response was higher in VAX+ compared to VAX-; however a more rapid waning was observed in VAX+ subjects.

Conclusions: Our data showed better antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in subjects already vaccinated against seasonal influenza; this may represent one of the mechanisms underlying the cross-protective effects of influenza vaccination against heterologous infections reported in recent epidemiological studies.




J Clin Med Res. 2021;13(12):549-555
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4590

Keywords


Vaccine-induced immunity; Influenza vaccination; SARS-CoV-2; BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine

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