COVID-19 and Renal Failure: Challenges in the Delivery of Renal Replacement Therapy

Sreedhar Adapa, Narothama Reddy Aeddula, Venu Madhav Konala, Avantika Chenna, Srikanth Naramala, Bhaskar Reddy Madhira, Vijay Gayam, Mamtha Balla, Vijayadershan Muppidi, Subhasish Bose

Abstract


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first officially reported in December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, and has since lead to a pandemic. Most cases result in minor symptoms such as cough, fever, sore throat, myalgia, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. As of April 8, 2020, more than 1,485,000 cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in over 90,000 deaths. Outcomes are worse in elderly patients, particularly males, and those with comorbidities, but can affect any age group. The incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19 infection is about 3-15%; and in patients with severe infection requiring care in the intensive care unit, the rates of acute kidney injury increased significantly from 15% to 50%. Acute kidney injury is an independent risk factor for mortality in COVID-19 patients. The nephrologists, as well as intensivists, are facing immense daily challenges while providing care for these patients in the inpatient setting as well as end-stage renal disease patients on chronic dialysis in both inpatient and outpatient settings. In the current review article, we discussed the epidemiology and etiology of acute kidney injury, management of acute kidney injury including renal replacement therapy options (both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) for inpatient floor, as well as intensive care unit settings. We also discussed the challenges faced by the outpatient dialysis units with COVID-19 infection. We discussed measures required to limit the spread of infection, as well as summarized the guidance as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Society of Nephrology (ASN), American Society of Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology (ASDIN) and the Vascular Access Society of the Americas (VASA).




J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(5):276-285
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4160

Keywords


COVID-19; Kidney impairment; Acute kidney injury; Renal replacement therapy; Hemofiltration; Hemodialysis; End-stage renal disease; Peritoneal dialysis

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