Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia-Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complicated by Pneumomediastinum and Pneumopericardium in a Non-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient

Jose Orsini, Hannah Gawlak, Vladimir Sabayev, Kumar Shah, Leah Washburn, Keira McCarthy, Anthony Courey, Erin Mouyeos, Siblea Pangallo


Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is widely known as a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, with the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and effective anti-Pneumocystis antimicrobial prophylaxis, this entity has declined substantially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Interestingly, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia has been increasing among patients without HIV infection, mainly as a consequence of the expanding use of chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive agents. Nevertheless, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains an important cause of HIV- and non-HIV-related catastrophic complications. Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium are extremely uncommon events in patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. In this report, we described a unique case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), complicated by pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in a non-HIV infected patient.

J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(3):209-213


Pneumocystis jirovecii; ARDS; Pneumomediastinum; Pneumopericardium; HIV-negative

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