Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Modifies Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Cigarette Smokers

Ebenezer T. Oni, Vincent Figueredo, Ehimen Aneni, Emir Veladar, John W. McEvoy, Michael J. Blaha, Roger S. Blumenthal, Raquel D. Conceicao, Jose A.M. Carvalho, Raul D. Santos, Khurram Nasir


Background: Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a marker of oxidative stress, associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The impact of smoking on oxidative stress may be aggravated in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to ascertain the association of smoking on GGT levels in the presence or absence of NAFLD.

Methods: We evaluated 6,354 healthy subjects (43 10 years, 79% males) without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) undergoing an employer-sponsored physical between December 2008 and December 2010. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound and participants were categorized as current or non-smokers by self report. A multivariate linear regression of the cross-sectional association between smoking and GGT was conducted based on NAFLD status.

Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was 36% (n = 2,299) and 564 (9%) were current smokers. Smokers had significantly higher GGT levels in the presence of NAFLD (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, current smoking was associated with 4.65 IU/L higher GGT level, P < 0.001, compared to non-smokers. When stratified by NAFLD, the magnitude of this association was higher in subjects with NAFLD (beta-coefficient: 11.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.76 - 16.48; P < 0.001); however, no such relationship was observed in those without NAFLD (?: -0.02; 95% CI: -3.59, 3.56; P = 0.992). Overall the interaction of NAFLD and smoking with GGT levels as markers of oxidative stress was statistically significant.

Conclusions: Smoking is independently associated with significantly increased oxidative stress as measured by GGT level. This association demonstrates effect modification by NAFLD status, suggesting that smoking may intensify CV risk in individuals with NAFLD.

J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(8):472-482


Gamma-glutamyl transferase; Oxidative stress; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Smoking; Cardiovascular risk

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.