Clinical Features of Spontaneous Isolated Dissection of Abdominal Visceral Arteries

Hiroaki Shiraki, Manabu Kasamoto, Masamichi Yasutomi, Shuichiro Kaji, Koichi Akutsu, Yutaka Furukawa, Wataru Shimizu, Nobutaka Inoue

Abstract


Background: Spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal visceral arteries without aortic dissection is rare and its pathology and prognosis are not yet clear; therefore, therapeutic strategies for this disease have not been established. The present multi-institution investigational study analyzed the clinical features of patients with spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal visceral arteries.

Methods: A total of 36 patients diagnosed as spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal visceral arteries from January 2010 to October 2016 were enrolled. The medical data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging characteristics were evaluated. Spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal visceral arteries was detected on upper abdominal computed tomography examination in almost patients, and was detected on magnetic resonance imaging in one patient.

Results: Of the 36 cases, 26 cases involved the superior mesenteric artery dissection, nine involved the celiac artery, two involved the splenic artery, one involved the common hepatic artery, one involved the gastroduodenal artery and one involved the left gastric artery. Among the 36 patients, 20 had hypertension and 14 were current smokers. Additionally, only one patient had diabetes and four patients had dyslipidemia. Moreover, 32 cases complained of pain including abdominal pain and back pain, one had cough and three had no symptoms. Of the 36 patients, 34 cases (94.4%) were treated conservatively, and two (5.6%) required intravascular treatment. All patients were discharged without complications.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that hypertension and smoking might be closely involved in the pathogenesis of spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal visceral arteries, whereas dyslipidemia and diabetes might be less involved. Additionally, few asymptomatic patients were accidentally diagnosed, indicating that the absence of symptoms cannot be used to rule out the presence of this disease. Randomized clinical trials cannot be performed because a considerable number of cases are required. Therefore, detailed descriptions of clinical features, as provided in our report, are important.




J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(1):13-17
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3916


Keywords


Spontaneous isolated dissection; Abdominal visceral arteries; Hypertension; Smoking

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