Influence of the Lung Microbiota Dysbiosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations: The Controversial Use of Corticosteroid and Antibiotic Treatments and the Role of Eosinophils as a Disease Marker

Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Luana Conte

Abstract


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating lung disease associated with loss of lung function, poorer quality of life, co-morbidities, significant mortality, and higher health care costs. Frequent acute exacerbations of COPD are sudden worsening of symptoms, the nature of which is associated with bacterial or viral infections. However, one-third of exacerbations remain of undetermined origin. Although it is largely discussed and controversial, current guidelines recommend treatment of exacerbations with bronchodilators, antibiotics, and systemic corticosteroids; this is despite being associated with limited benefits in term of reducing mortality, side effects and without paying attention to the heterogeneity of these exacerbations. Increasing evidence suggests that the lung microbiota plays an important role in COPD and numerous studies have reported differences in the microbiota between healthy and disease states, as well as between exacerbations and stable COPD, leading to the hypothesis that frequent acute exacerbation is more likely to experience significant changes in lung microbiota composition. These findings will need further examination to explain the causes of lung dysbiosis, namely microbial composition, the host response, including the recruitment of eosinophils, lifestyle, diet, cigarette smoking and the use of antibiotics and corticosteroids. It is now important to assess: 1) Whether alterations in the lung microbiota contribute to disease pathogenesis, especially in exacerbations of unknown origin; 2) The role of eosinophils; and 3) Whether the microbiota of the lung can be manipulated therapeutically to improve COPD exacerbation event and disease progression. In summary, we hypothesize that the alterations of the lung microbiota may explain the undetermined origins of exacerbations and that there is an urgent need to facilitate the design of intervention studies that aim at conserving the lung microbial flora.




J Clin Med Res. 2019;11(10):667-675
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3875

Keywords


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Lung microbiota dysbiosis; Corticosteroids; Antibiotics; Eosinophils; Probiotics

Full Text: HTML PDF

 

 

 

 

Browse  Journals  

     

Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.            
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jocmr.org   editorial contact: editor@jocmr.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.