Human Papillomavirus Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Case Control Study

Nadia Velazquez-Hernandez, Luis Francisco Sanchez-Anguiano, Fernando Martin Guerra-Infante, Marisela Aguilar-Duran, Alma Rosa Perez-Alamos, Sergio Estrada-Martinez, Jose Antonio Navarrete-Flores, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel


Background: To determine the association of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and the occupation of female sex worker; and the correlation of infection with HPV with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of female sex workers.

Methods: We performed a case-control study of 217 female sex workers and 354 women without sex work in Durango City, Mexico. We determined the prevalence of infection with HPV in cervical samples of women using polymerase chain reaction, and HPV genotypes were determined using line probe assay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between the characteristics of women and infection.

Results: Twelve (5.5%) of the 217 sex workers, and 10 (2.8%) of the 354 control women were positive for HPV DNA (age-adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.62 - 3.68; P = 0.36). Six (50.0%) of the 12 HPV DNA positive sex workers had infections with high-risk genotypes (16, 31, 33, 35, 51, 58). Seven (70%) of the 10 HPV DNA positive control women had infections with high-risk genotypes (16, 18, 56, 58, and 66). The frequency of high risk genotypes in the control women was equal with that found in the female sex workers (P = 0.41). Logistic regression analysis showed that the variable alcohol consumption was associated with HPV infection (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.0 - 16.0; P = 0.04).

Conclusions: No association between HPV infection and female sex work was found in our setting. High risk HPV genotypes were prevalent among the women studied. Results can be used for the design of preventive measures against HPV infection.

J Clin Med Res. 2019;11(3):196-201


Human papillomavirus; Prevalence; Female sex workers; Case-control study

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