Risk Factors Associated With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

Nikhita Dharbhamulla, Ahmed Abdelhady, Mona Domadia, Sanket Patel, John Gaughan, Satyajeet Roy

Abstract


Background: Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a problem that can cost up to $20,000 each year in the United States. Studies have reported risk factors that may be associated with a higher incidence of recurrent CDI. We studied additional risk factors, including history of partial colectomy, chemotherapy use and hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all outpatients and inpatients at our institution to determine risk factors associated with recurrent CDI. Frequencies were compared using Fisher’s exact test and continuous data were compared using Wilcoxon ranks sums test. Recurrent CDI was determined for all patients and risk factors were analyzed using single and multiple logistic regression. A P < 0.05 was used to determine significance.

Results: This study included 435 patients and found that advanced age significantly increased the odds of recurrent CDI by 2.3% per year (OR = 1.023, 95% CI = 1.009 - 1.037, P < 0.05). Patients with prior partial colectomy were found to have 3.2 times increased odds of recurrence compared to those without history of partial colectomy (OR = 3.168, 95% CI = 1.324 - 7.579, P < 0.05). Patients receiving chemotherapy or hospitalized in the ICU were not found to have a significantly higher rate of recurrent CDI (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Advanced age and history of partial colectomy were associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate of CDI. Contrary to prior studies, chemotherapy use or hospitalization in the ICU were not found to be associated with a higher rate of recurrent CDI.




J Clin Med Res. 2019;11(1):1-6
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3531w


Keywords


Recurrent Clostridium difficile; Risk factors; Partial colectomy; Chemotherapy

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