Anxiety and Depression Among Adult Patients With Diabetic Foot: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Ali Ahmad, Mousa Abujbara, Hashem Jaddou, Nidal A. Younes, Kamel Ajlouni


Background: Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus with subsequent disturbances in the daily life of the patients. The co-existence of depression and anxiety among diabetic foot patients is a common phenomenon and the role of each of them in perpetuating the other is highlighted in the literature. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of anxiety and depression, and to examine the associated risk factors among diabetic foot patients.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 260 diabetic foot patients in the Diabetic Foot Clinic at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan, participated in the study. Sociodemographic and health data were gathered through review of medical charts and a structured questionnaire. Depression and anxiety status were also assessed. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to screen for anxiety and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to screen for depression. A cutoff of ? 10 was used for each scale to identify those who tested positive for anxiety and depression.

Results: Prevalence rate of anxiety was 37.7% and that of depression was 39.6%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that anxiety is positively associated with duration of diabetes of < 10 years (P = 0.01), with ? three comorbid diseases (P = 0.00), and HbA1c level of > 7% (P = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that depression is positively associated with patients of < 50 years of age (P = 0.03), females (P = 0.01), current smokers (P = 0.01), patients with foot ulcer duration ? 7 months (P = 0.00), with ? three comorbid diseases (P = 0.00) than their counterparts.

Conclusions: Anxiety and depression are widely prevalent among diabetic foot patients. Mental health status of those patients gets even worse among those suffering other comorbid diseases, which was a finding that requires special attention in the management of patients with diabetic foot.

J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(5):411-418


Anxiety; Depression; Diabetic foot; Jordan

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