Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Northwestern Mexican City

Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Maria Alba Guadalupe Corella-Madueno, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Antonio Rascon-Careaga, Luis Francisco Sanchez-Anguiano, Karla Guadalupe Martinez-Robinson, Maria Lourdes Aldana-Madrid, Trinidad Quizan-Plata, Maria Guadalupe Canez-Carrasco, Cinthia Jhovanna Perez-Martinez

Abstract


Background: Through a cross-sectional survey, we determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City, Mexico.

Methods: We studied 445 women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. Women were enrolled in the University of Sonora. Sera of women were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii by commercially available enzyme immunoassays. The association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Of the 445 women (mean age: 22.18 ± 5.6 years) studied, 16 (3.6%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and two (12.5%) were also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Of the 16 anti-T. gondii IgG-positive women, six (37.5%) had IgG levels higher than 150 IU/mL, four (25.0%) between 100 and 150 IU/mL, and six (37.5%) between 9 and 99 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with older age (odds ratio (OR): 5.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37 - 20.50; P = 0.01) and boar meat consumption (OR: 6.86; 95% CI: 1.27 - 37.07; P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Women of reproductive age in Hermosillo City had a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this finding indicates that most of these women were susceptible to a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii infection found in this study may be useful for the optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae.




J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(3):210-216
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3284w

 


Keywords


Toxoplasma; Women; Epidemiology; Seroprevalence; Risk factors; Cross-sectional study; Mexico

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