Haptoglobin Phenotype Among Arab Patients With Mental Disorders

Zaher Armaly, Kamal Farhat, Safa Kinaneh, Joseph Farah


Background: Depression, schizophrenia and panic disorder are common mental disorders in the community and hospitalized patients. These mental disorders negatively affect life quality and even expectancy of life. Haptoglobin (Hp) phenotype (Hp 1-1, 1-2, or 2-2) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but its association with psychiatric disorders, a growing concern in the modern society, has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of the study was to examine whether Hp phenotype is associated with common mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and panic disorder.

Methods: The study included 92 Arab patients with mental disorders, and among them 44 suffered from schizophrenia (mean age 39 ± 1.5 years), 17 from depression (mean age 44.5 ± 3.1 years), 31 from panic disorder (mean age of 44.9 ± 2.7 years), and 206 healthy Arab control subjects with a mean age of 42.6 ± 0.9 years. Beck’s depression inventory assessment and Hamilton depression scale were administered for depression and panic disorder diagnosis. Schizophrenia was evaluated with positive and negative affect schedule (Panas) test. All mental disorders were evaluated by clinical review. Blood analysis for Hp phenotype was performed. Diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders axis to correlate depression with Hp phenotype.

Results: In mentally healthy controls, 10.7% were Hp 1-1, 38.8% Hp 2-1, and 50.5% Hp 2-2. In patients with the studied psychiatric disorders, Hp phenotype was comparable to healthy subjects; 8.7% were Hp 1-1, 50% Hp 2-1, and 41.3% Hp 2-2. When Hp phenotyping was analyzed in the psychiatric subgroups, Hp 2-1 was more common among depressed and schizophrenic patients, as compared with healthy subjects (58.8% and 52.3% vs. 38.8%). In patients who suffer from panic disorder, Hp phenotype distribution was 6.5% Hp 1-1, 41.9% Hp 2-1, and 51.6% Hp 2-2, suggesting a lower prevalence among Hp 1-1 phenotype.

Conclusions: Arab patients who carry Hp 2-1 phenotype may be at risk to develop depression or schizophrenia more than the general healthy population. In contrast, Hp 1-1 subjects have a lower prevalence of panic disorder.

J Clin Med Res. 2018;10(3):196-201
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr3279w



Haptoglobin; Mental disorders; Depression; Schizophrenia; Panic disorder; Association

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