Variables to Predict Nephrological Disease in General, and Glomerulonephritis in Particular, in Patients With Microhematuria

Carsten Paul Bramlage, Manuel Wallbach, David Ellenberger, Cornelia Deutsch, Joan Minguet, Katherine Helen Smith, Johanna Stock, Alina Goninski, Peter Bramlage, Michael Koziolek, Gerhard Anton Mueller


Background: Microhematuria (MH) is a symptom frequently leading to uncertainty as to when a nephrology referral is appropriate. Because MH may be indicative of severe kidney disorders, prompt diagnosis and potential treatment initiation can be important. We aimed to identify further variables that point at a nephrological cause, in particular of glomerulonephritis (GN), when MH is diagnosed.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data acquired from patients attending a nephrology office due to MH was performed. Demographic information and diagnostic tests were evaluated in order to identify factors that were associated with a nephrological cause.

Results: Patients with MH (n = 805) as indicated by a urine stick analysis were included. Of these, MH was confirmed by urine sediment analysis in 543 patients (67.5%). Of those, 48.3% had a nephrological cause, including 12.4% with GN and 2.9% with rapid progressive GN (RPGN). A urine dipstick finding of >= 250 erythrocytes per microliter, microalbuminuria and elevated leukocytes increased the probability of having a GN to 62.4%. Furthermore, the presence of microalbuminuria, GFR < 60 mL/min, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus increased the probability for all nephrological causes to 95.4%.

Conclusion: There are a number of factors available that help to assess the need for a nephrology referral in patients with microhematuria.

J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(7):560-566


Microhematuria; Kidney disease; Diagnostic; General practice; Urinalysis

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