Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease in a 12-Month Follow-Up

Toshihisa Ishida, Shin-ichiro Miura, Kanta Fujimi, Makito Futami, Yoko Ueda, Takashi Ueda, Tadaaki Arimura, Rie Koyoshi, Yuhei Shiga, Ken Kitajima, Keijiro Saku


Background: Visit-to-visit variability (VVV) in blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the long-term effect of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training on VVV in BP has not yet been established. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effects of CR on VVV in BP in patients with CVD.

Methods: Twenty-two CVD patients in a 12-month CR program who had at least six clinic visits per month to measure BP were enrolled. We determined VVV in BP expressed as the standard deviation of average BP every month for 12 months.

Results: The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and the body mass index was 24.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2. In addition, the percentage (%) of males, % heart failure and % ischemic heart disease were 77%, 55% and 27%, respectively. Patients who had uncontrolled BP at baseline showed a significant reduction of both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). VVV in SBP in the first month was significantly less than that in the last month, although there was no difference in VVV in DBP. Patients were divided into larger (L-) and smaller (S-) VVV in SBP groups according to the average value of VVV in SBP as a cut-off. The L-VVV in SBP group, but not the S-VVV in SBP group, showed a significant reduction of VVV in SBP.

Conclusion: Comprehensive CR may improve VVV in SBP in CVD patients who have larger VVV in SBP.

J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(4):345-352



Exercise training; Cardiac rehabilitation; Blood pressure; Visit-to-visit variability

Full Text: HTML PDF





Browse  Journals  


Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.            
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.