J Clin Med Res
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc
Journal website http://www.jocmr.org

Letter to the Editor

Volume 9, Number 1, January 2017, pages 79


Antegrade Versus Retrograde Cholecystectomy: What’s in a Name?

Lemuel Prana, b, Ravi Maharaja, Shanta Baijooa

aDepartment of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago
bCorresponding Author: Lemuel Pran, Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago

Manuscript accepted for publication November 02, 2016
Short title: Letter to the Editor
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2803w

To the Editor▴Top 

I have read the article entitled “Laparoscopic anterograde cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis” with much interest [1]. The word antegrade refers to moving or extending forward as opposed to retrograde which implies moving backward or opposite to the direction of flow. These are commonly used in medical terminology as a cholangiogram done from the ampulla toward the bile duct is an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; similarly, a retrograde pyelogram refers to intravasation of contrast from the urethra toward the kidneys. Also when referring to endovascular vessel access, an antegrade approach confers with cannulation of the vessel proximal to site of the lesion, whereas in a retrograde approach, the access vessel is distal to the target lesion.

Therefore, it appears that the terms antegrade and retrograde not only take into consideration direction of flow but also the relative anatomical position. Interestingly flow of bile is bi-directional in a reversed manner from the bile duct into the cystic duct when sphincter of Oddi is closed and in a forward direction with contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi [2]. This concept of flow therefore cannot be used as a basis for determination of antegrade or retrograde cholecystectomy.

The terms antegrade and retrograde cholecystectomy have been introduced over time and with the advances in surgical practice. However, to apply these terms descriptively to the removal of the gallbladder is very enigmatic and controversial as the literature is fraught with inconsistency. I refer to Kelly et al where a retrograde cholecystectomy is considered a fundus first approach [3]. Contradictory to this, Neri et al describes a fundus first approach as antegrade [4].

Admittedly this concept was difficult to grasp; however, antegrade or retrograde is based on the surgeon’s perspective and his intended end point. The current standard for cholecystectomy is via a laparoscopic approach with initial dissection of Calot’s triangle followed by fundic dissection off the liver bed. Theoretically from the laparoscopic surgeon’s perspective, this is an antegrade dissection, and the same is true for an open procedure where the fundus is dissected followed by Calot’s triangle. Prior to the laparoscopic era in the 1980s, this terminology was also surrounded by much controversy.

As highlighted there is confusion and the accuracy of the nomenclature comes into question. It is advised that there is standardization of the terminology. We recommend that the terms antegrade and retrograde be substituted for “Fundus First” and “Calot’s First” approach for cholecystectomy.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this letter.


References▴Top 
  1. Engin O, Yildirim M, Cengiz F, Ilhan E. Laparoscopic anterograde cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis. J Clin Med Res. 2009;1(3):186-187.
    doi
  2. Behar J. Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Biliary Tract: The Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi - A review. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2013.
  3. Kelly MD. Laparoscopic retrograde (fundus first) cholecystectomy. BMC Surg. 2009;9:19.
    doi pubmed
  4. Neri V, Ambrosi A, Fersini A, Tartaglia N, Valentino TP. Antegrade dissection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. JSLS. 2007;11(2):225-228.
    pubmed


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research is published by Elmer Press Inc.



 

 

 

 

Browse  Journals  

 

Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

 

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

 

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

 

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

 

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 
       
 

Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.             
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jocmr.org   editorial contact: editor@jocmr.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.