Aortic Stiffness in Prediabetic Adults: Relationship to Insulin Resistance

Hamdy Sliem, Gamela Nasr

Abstract


Background: A decrease in the compliance of the arterial system, termed arterial stiffness, results in increased cardiac workload. Several studies have shown that arterial stiffness is increased in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Also, insulin resistance is generally considered to be of major importance in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus given that glucose intolerance and insulin resistance precede the development of overt diabetes, these factors would be associated with arterial stiffness. This study was to evaluate the state of aortic elasticity in prediabetic adults in relation to insulin resistance.

Methods: A case-control study was performed. A total of 113 consecutive adults with prediabetes were enrolled for the study, 32 adults had insulin resistance (group A) and 81 had insulin sensitive (group B). Forty-five healthy (with normal fasting glucose) adults matched for age and gender were considered as control. All were subjected to full medical history and clinical examination including blood pressure and body mass index. Biochemical studies including lipids profile, fasting glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR) test. Echocardiographic studies were done for assessment of the aortic stiffness index.

Results: Significant increase in mean aortic stiffness index was seen in group A than group B. Stiffness was correlated with insulin resistance and the correlation appeared to be independent of glucose tolerance status and obesity. Similar correlations were observed with age, triglycerides and waist circumference.

Conclusions: Prediabetic subjects have an aortic stiffness which represent pattern of cardiovascular risk factors. These changes are predominantly observed in prediabetic subjects with increased HOMA IR and visceral obesity independent of glucose levels.




doi:10.4021/jocmr2010.03.269w


Keywords


Prediabetes; Insulin resistance; Aortic stiffness index

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