Correlations of Clusters of Non-Convulsive Seizure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Case With GAD65-Positive Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis

Rachael Gardner, Rajesh Rangaswamy, Yen-Yi Peng

Abstract


With the increased availability of laboratory tests, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-positive limbic encephalitis has become an emerging diagnosis. The myriad symptoms of limbic encephalitis make the diagnosis challenging. Symptoms range from seizures, memory loss, dementia, confusion, to psychosis. We present a case of a 21-year-old female with GAD65 antibody-positive limbic encephalitis. The case is unique because the clinical course suggests that non-convulsive seizures are the major cause of this patient’s clinical manifestations. The following is the thesis: systemic autoimmune disease, associated with the GAD65 antibody, gives rise to seizures, in particular, non-convulsive seizures. Temporal lobes happen to be the most susceptible sites to develop seizures. The greater part of these seizures can be non-convulsive and hard to recognize without electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. The variable symptoms mirror the severity and locations of these seizures. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal abnormities in the bilateral hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary body correlate with the density of these seizures in the similar manner, which suggests it is secondary to post-ictal edema.




J Clin Med Res. 2016;8(8):616-622
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2624w


Keywords


Autoimmune; Limbic encephalitis; GAD65 antibody; Non-convulsive seizure; Hippocampus; Fornix; Mammillary body; Electroencephalogram; Magnetic resonance imaging

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