Efficacy and Safety of Alogliptin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Analysis of the ATTAK-J Study

Hiroshi Takeda, Nobuo Sasai, Shogo Ito, Mitsuo Obana, Tetsuo Takuma, Masahiko Takai, Hideaki Kaneshige, Hideo Machimura, Akira Kanamori, Kazumi Nakajima, Ikuro Matsuba

Abstract


Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the reduction varies between patients and adequate glycemic control may not be achieved. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin in the real clinical setting, and analyzed factors associated with the improvement of HbA1c by alogliptin treatment.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in patients with type 2 diabetes attending hospitals or clinics belonging to the Kanagawa Physicians Association who received treatment with alogliptin for 1 year or longer. Patients using insulin were excluded from the study. The efficacy endpoints were HbA1c (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program value), blood glucose (fasting/postprandial), body weight, blood pressure (systolic/diastolic), liver function (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), kidney function (serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate), serum lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides), and serum amylase. Adverse events were compiled to assess safety.

Results: Of 330 patients whose case records were collected, 27 patients were excluded for protocol violations, leaving 303 patients to form the full analysis set. Compared with baseline, HbA1c showed a decrease by 0.54±1.22% (mean ± standard deviation) after 12 months of alogliptin treatment. Factor analysis demonstrated that the change of HbA1c after 12 months was significantly influenced by the baseline HbA1c level, duration of diabetes, concomitant use of sulfonylureas, and compliance with diet therapy. In addition, there was a significant reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate after 12 months of alogliptin treatment, as well as a significant increase in serum creatinine. No significant changes of body weight, blood pressure, or liver function were observed. Symptoms of hypoglycemia occurred in two patients (0.6%).

Conclusions: Alogliptin displayed a significant hypoglycemic effect and excellent safety in routine clinical use. Factors influencing the change of HbA1c with alogliptin therapy may include the HbA1c at the start of treatment, the duration of diabetes, use of sulfonylureas, and compliance with diet therapy.




J Clin Med Res. 2016;8(2):130-140
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2418w


Keywords


Type 2 diabetes; Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; Alogliptin; Hemoglobin A1c

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