Morphological and Morphometrical Study of the Human Ossicular Chain: A Review of the Literature and a Meta-Analysis of Experience Over 50 Years

George Noussios, Pantelis Chouridis, Lazaros Kostretzis, Konstantinos Natsis


The ossicular chain has been known for 500 years and yet there are a small number of morphometrical studies. We reviewed the whole literature that is available online regarding the human ossicular chain from an anatomist perspective and correlated the data from all the papers that showed any relevance. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. A thorough description of all ossicular differences has been made and we present their variations in dimensions trying to associate measurements obtained with race. This research included papers spreading on a horizon of over 50 years of worldwide experience. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a great difference in measurements and the results cannot be sufficiently associated. The explanation of this variation in the measurements obtained might be due to errors in the procedure. We conclude that ossicular chain reveals a great variety, and propose that a measurement protocol for auditory ossicles must be widely performed.

J Clin Med Res. 2016;8(2):76-83


Ossicles; Incus; Malleus; Stapes; Morphometry; Morphology; Race

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