J Clin Med Res
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc
Journal website http://www.jocmr.org

Letter to the Editor

Volume 7, Number 6, June 2015, pages 499-500


Prevalence of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Carrier in Japanese Pregnant Women in 2013

Shunji Suzukia, b, Masanobu Tanakaa, Hideo Matsudaa, Yuki Tsukaharaa, Yasushi Kuribayashia, Akihito Nakaia, Ryoichiro Miyazakia, Naoki Kamiyaa, Akihiko Sekizawaa, Nobuko Mizutania, Katsuyuki Kinoshitaa

aJapan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Japan
bCorresponding Author: Shunji Suzuki, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital, 5-11-12 Tateishi, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124-0012, Japan

Manuscript accepted for publication January 12, 2015
Short title: HTLV-1 Carrier in Japan
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2097w

To the Editor▴Top 

Since September 2010, in Japan serological screening for the detection of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies can be performed for all women during pregnancy with the Japanese public funds for strategies for prevention of HTLV-1 vertical transmission, because Japan, especially Kyushu area, has been reported to be one of the areas of highest prevalence of HTLV-1 in the world [1, 2]. In our previous study [3], we examined the prevalence of HTLV-1 carrier in Japanese pregnant women according to the implement rate and results of HTLV-1 screening and confirmation tests of women who gave births in Japan in 2011. The total rates of positive HTLV-1 screening tests and positive western blot (WB) test in positive screening tests were 0.32% and 49.8%, respectively in 2011. Considering the response rate and the rate of implementation of WB test, the number of HTLV-1 carrier in Japanese pregnant women in 2011 was estimated to be 1,560 (0.15%). In addition, although the number of delivery in Kyushu area was only 14% of Japanese deliveries, 53% of HTLV-1 carrier of Japanese pregnant women was present in Kyushu area.

Recently, the migration of Japanese people from Kyushu area to the metropolitan areas has been thought to contribute to a significant decrease of HTLV-1 carriers in Kyushu area and an increase in Kanto (including Tokyo) area in Japan [1, 4]. To confirm this migration in Japanese pregnant women, on December 2014, we requested again 2,544 obstetrical facilities that are members of Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) to provide information of HTLV-1 tests in pregnant women who delivered at ≥ 22 weeks’ gestation in 2013. A total of 1,356 (53.3%) of 2,544 obstetrical facilities responded and information on a total of 538,167 women, accounting for approximately 54% of all deliveries that occurred in Japan during the study period (approximately 1,001,800 births) was provided.

In 2013, the total rates of positive HTLV-1 screening tests and positive WB test in positive screening tests were 0.35% and 50.8%, respectively. Considering the response rate and the rate of implementation of WB test, the number of HTLV-1 carrier in Japanese pregnant women in 2013 was estimated to be 1,780 (0.18%). Table 1 shows the difference in the estimated number of HTLV-1 carrier based on positive WB test by area in Japan between 2011 and 2013. The estimated number of HTLV-1 carrier in 2013 seemed to be more than that in 2011, especially in the northeast and southwest (Kyushu) areas. In addition, 51% of HTLV-1 carrier of Japanese pregnant women was present in Kyushu area, although the number of delivery in Kyushu area was only 13% of Japanese deliveries in 2013.

Table 1.
Click to view
Table 1. Results of HTLV-1 Western Blot Tests and Estimated Number of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Carrier in Pregnant Women Who Delivered at ≥ 22 Weeks’ Gestation in 2011 and 2013 by Area in Japan
 

Although the migration of Japanese people from Kyushu area to the metropolitan areas has been supposed to contribute to a significant decrease of HTLV-1 carriers in Kyushu area, the estimated number of HTLV-1 carrier of pregnant women seemed to be increased in Kyushu area. In addition, the estimated rate of HTLV-1 carrier in pregnant women in Kyushu area was still significantly higher than that in the other areas (P < 0.01 by the Chi-square test). Therefore, there are still remaining problems concerning the locality for strategies for prevention of HTLV-1 vertical transmission in Japan.

Declaration of Interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors are responsible for the content and writing of the paper. This study was supported by the Japan Health, Labour and Welfare scientific research subsidies: “HTLV-1 mother-to-child transmission prevention research: cohort research of HTLV-1 antibody-positive pregnant women”.


References▴Top 
  1. Watanabe T. Current status of HTLV-1 infection. Int J Hematol. 2011;94(5):430-434.
    doi pubmed
  2. Mylonas I, Bruning A, Kainer F, Friese K. HTLV infection and its implication in gynaecology and obstetrics. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;282(5):493-501.
    doi pubmed
  3. Suzuki S, Tanaka M, Matsuda H, Tsukahara Y, Kuribayashi Y, Gomibuchi H, Miyazaki R, et al. Current status of HTLV-1 carrier in Japanese pregnant women. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;27(3):312-313.
    doi pubmed
  4. Satake M, Yamaguchi K, Tadokoro K. Current prevalence of HTLV-1 in Japan as determined by screening of blood donors. J Med Virol. 2012;84(2):327-335.
    doi pubmed


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research is published by Elmer Press Inc.



 

 

 

 

Browse  Journals  

 

Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

 

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

 

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

 

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

 

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics

 

 
       
 

Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, monthly, ISSN 1918-3003 (print), 1918-3011 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                 
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)


This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jocmr.org   editorial contact: editor@jocmr.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.