Incidence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Coastal South-Eastern US Patient Population With Cardiovascular Disease

Sherrie Khadanga, Clara V. Massey


Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly gaining prominence as an associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, often thought to be an issue in colder climates and higher altitudes. The intent of this study was to ascertain vitamin D levels in the southern Alabama gulf-coast region that has a high number of sunny days along with an annual average elevated UV ray index.

Methods: An observational retrospective study of 204 patients with established CVD treated at the University of South Alabama’s Heart Center from January 2007 through January 2013 was undertaken. One-way ANOVA analyses were performed to determine any significant difference in the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum based on gender and also based on race/ethnicity. Further, odds ratio (OR) was computed to ascertain if there was a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated body mass index (BMI).

Results: Out of 204 patients, 53.4% (n = 109) were found to have vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D = 20.1 ng/mL), while 46.6% (n = 95) were within the normal range (25(OH)D = 37.8 ng/mL). The mean 25(OH)D of the entire group was 28.3, indicating a general trend of vitamin D insufficiency for patients treated at the cardiology clinics.

Conclusion: This study established the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the hot and high UV ray index climate of the coastal south-eastern United States. Also, it revealed the relationship of increased BMI with low 25(OH)D serum level. More extensive studies should be conducted in similar climates to further assess vitamin D insufficiency.

J Clin Med Res. 2014;6(6):469-475


Vitamin D insufficiency; Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Cardiovascular disease; Body mass index

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