Outcomes of Salvage Autologous Versus Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Multiple Myeloma After Initial Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

Baldeep Wirk, Michael Byrne, Yunfeng Dai, Jan S. Moreb


Background: Standard therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) includes initial autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (autoHCT1) but this is not curative and most patients will relapse. Role of salvage autoHCT2 or allogeneic HCT (alloHCT2) is undefined.

Methods: MM patients who relapsed after autoHCT1 and had salvage autoHCT2 (N = 27) or alloHCT2 (N = 19) between 1995 - 2011 at our institution were studied retrospectively.

Results: Complete and very good partial remission (CR/VGPR) improved from 7% to 56% after autoHCT2 and from 26% to 37% after alloHCT2. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 3 years was 3.7% for autoHCT2 and 5.3% for alloHCT2 (P = 0.901). Median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for autoHCT2 (19 months, 23 months) and alloHCT2 (6 months, 19 months) were not significantly different. On multivariate analysis, time from autoHCT1 to relapse ≥ 1year (HR 24.81, 95% CI 2.4 - 249.9) and maintenance therapy after autoHCT2 (HR 12.19, 95% CI 2.5 - 249.9) impacted OS after autoHCT2. Time from autoHCT1 to relapse < 1 year vs. ≥ 1 year (HR 18.55, 95% CI 2.28 - 150.57) impacted PFS after autoHCT2. For alloHCT2, no factors impacted NRM, PFS or OS. For those with relapse from autoHCT1 < 1 year vs. ≥ 1 year undergoing autoHCT2, median OS was 15 months (range, 1 - 53) vs. not yet reached at 143 months and median PFS was 5 months (range, 1 - 49) vs. not yet reached at 88 months.

Conclusions: Salvage autoHCT2 and alloHCT2 are both feasible for post autoHCT1 MM relapse. Relapse ≥ 1 year from autoHCT1 predicts for better PFS and OS after autoHCT2. Maintenance therapy after autoHCT2 is beneficial.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4021/jocmr1274w


Multiple myeloma; Relapse; Salvage hematopoietic cell transplantation

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