Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Original Article

Volume 11, Number 5, May 2019, pages 337-344

Serum Oxidative-Antioxidative Status in Patients With Alkaptonuria


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Scatter plot of the patient’s age, patients’ plasma TAC, TBARS, AOPP and HGA levels with disease severity score in the AKU patients.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Scatter plot of protein carbonyl in AKU patients.


Table 1. Patient’s Clinical Features
Clinical features/symptomsN (%)
Dark urine21 (100%)
Pigmentation of skin, outer ear and sclera of the eye16 (76%)
Teeth pigmentation19 (90%)
Morning stiffness and back pain due to degenerate arthropathy21 (100%)
Arthropathy of large joints (hips and shoulders)21 (100%)
Knees pain13 (62%)
Kidney stones13 (62%)
Prostate stones5 (24%)
Aortic stenosis1 (5%)
Ruptures of muscles, tendons and ligaments1 (5%)
Knee joint replacement1 (5%)
Foot pain and swelling of small joints (interphalangeal joints)1 (5%)


Table 2. Age, Plasma Oxidative Markers’ Levels, Disease Severity Score and Urine HGA Levels in Alkaptonuria Patients and Controls
VariablePatientsaControlaMann-Whitney UP value
Patient score and urine HGA were null in controls. aData are means ± standard deviation (SD). *P value < 0.05 versus healthy subjects.
Age (years)37.86 ± 12.5936.00 ± 10.62174.50.496
Sex (F/M)4/176/13
TAC (nmol/µL copper reducing equivalent)13.82 ± 1.638.92 ± 1.6360.00*
TAC (nmol/µL uric acid equivalent)0.63 ± 0.0740.41 ± 0.07460.00*
TBARS (MDA) (µmol/L)0.050 ± 0.0010.049 ± 0.000584.50.002*
Protein carbonyl (nmol/mL)1.87 ± 0.341.77 ± 0.231340.076
AOPP (µmol/mL)4.39 ± 0.114.39 ± 0.141610.297
HGA level (g/day)1.23 ± 0.98---
Disease severity score34.24 ± 22.25---


Table 3. Correlation of the Patient’s Age, Patients’ Plasma TAC, TBARS, PC, AOPP and HGA Levels With Disease Severity Score in the AKU Patients
VariableDisease severity score
Spearman’s correlation (r)P value
*P value < 0.05.
Disease severity score1
Age (years)0.5570.000*
TAC (nmol/µL copper reducing equivalent)-0.0460.353
TAC (nmol/µL uric acid equivalent)-0.0460.353
TBARS (MDA) (µmol/L)-0.0980.673
Protein carbonyl (nmol/mL0.2420.024*
AOPP (µmol/mL)0.0210.530
HGA level (g/day)-0.0430.494


Table 4. Linear Regression Analysis for Disease Severity Score Prediction
ModelUnstandardized coefficientsStandardized coefficientsP value95% confidence interval for B
BSEBetaLower boundUpper bound
SE: standard error. *P value < 0.05.
Protein Carbonyl(PC)000.4920.024*0.0000.001