Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, ISSN 1918-3003 print, 1918-3011 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Clin Med Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 7, Number 6, June 2015, pages 385-392

Pre-Participation and Follow-Up Screening of Athletes for Endurance Sport


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Green light: no strict recommendation [14, 21-23] for further examination (in our opinion minimum echocardiography is recommended). Yellow light: borderline changes, potentially further recommendation for evaluation. Red light: further evaluation strong recommended. RBBB: right bundle brunch block; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; TWI: T-wave inversion; BAs: black athletes; WAs: white athletes; LBBB: left bundle brunch block; RV: right ventricular; FU: follow-up; VES: ventricular extrasystole.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Exercise ECG shows onset of atrial fibrillation in “healthy” athlete (A) or ventricular ectopic beats (B) during exercise (normally “healthy” athlete).
Figure 3.
Figure 3. (a, b) Left atrium (LA) follow-up 2 years of triathlete with enlargement of LA and atrial fibrillation events. (b, c) Strain curves of left ventricle during atrial fibrillation (c) and 24 h after recovery in sinus rhythm (d). (e, f) Doppler measurement of diastolic function: conventional (e) and using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).


Table 1. Distribution of Cardiovascular Causes of Sudden Death in Young Athletes > 12 - 35 Years and General Population of Young People 5 - 35 Years (in %)
Marijon et al, 2011 [6]Corrado et al, 2003 [7]Solberg et al, 2010 [8]Maron et al, 2007 [9]Puranik et al, 2005 [10]
cong HD: congenital heart disease; ARVC: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; QT: QT-syndrome (including Romano-Ward syndrome and Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome); WPW: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; CM: cardiomyopathy; HCM: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; MVP: mitral valve prolapse.
Aortic rupture/dissection21.84.325.4
Aortic stenosis/cong HD64.35
Channelopathies (QT, WPW)121.88.73(29?)
Coronary artery anomalies113.3172.1
Coronary disease61848324.5
Dilatative CM41.825.4
Hypertrophic CM101.84.3365.8
Possible HCM48
Riva muscle bridge23.63
Other (endocarditis, clots, etc.)7.5
n = 50n = 55n = 22n = 1,435n = 241