Molecular Analysis of Factor VIII and Factor IX Genes in Hemophilia Patients: Identification of Novel Mutations and Molecular Dynamics Studies

Faisal A. Al-Allaf, Mohiuddin M. Taher, Zainularifeen Abduljaleel, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Mohammed Athar, Neda M. Bogari, Halah A. Abalkhail, Tarek MA. Owaidah

Abstract


Background: Hemophilias A and B are X-linked bleeding disorders caused by mutations in the factor VIII and factor IX genes, respectively. Our objective was to identify the spectrum of mutations of the factor VIII and factor IX genes in Saudi Arabian population and determine the genotype and phenotype correlations by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.

Methods: For genotyping, blood samples from Saudi Arabian patients were collected, and the genomic DNA was amplified, and then sequenced by Sanger method. For molecular simulations, we have used softwares such as CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics; http://www.charmm-gui.org) and GROMACS. In addition, the secondary structure was determined based on the solvent accessibility for the confirmation of the protein stability at the site of mutation.

Results: Six mutations (three novel and three known) were identified in factor VIII gene, and six mutations (one novel and five known) were identified in factor IX gene. The factor VIII novel mutations identified were c.99G>T, p. (W33C) in exon 1, c.2138 DelA, p. (N713Tfs*9) in eon14, also a novel mutation at splicing acceptor site of exon 23 c.6430 - 1G>A. In factor IX, we found a novel mutation c.855G>C, p. (E285D) in exon 8. These novel mutations were not reported in any factor VIII or factor IX databases previously. The deleterious effects of these novel mutations were confirmed by PolyPhen2 and SIFT programs.

Conclusion: The protein functional and structural studies and the models built in this work would be appropriate for predicting the effects of deleterious amino acid substitutions causing these genetic disorders. These findings are useful for genetic counseling in the case of consanguineous marriages which is more common in the Saudi Arabia.




J Clin Med Res. 2017;9(4):317-331
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jocmr2876w

 


Keywords


Hemophilia A; Hemophilia B; Saudi Arabia; Blood coagulation; Computer simulation

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